My name is Rokaia, and I am currently an undergraduate student of Music Production in Limerick Institute of Technology (L.I.T.). In my final year of the Honours B.Sc., I have chosen to study Video Post-Production, where I have had the opportunity to apply both creative and technical skills in order to produce audio visual content. In the past four years, I have focused primarily on music and audio production, but have always had a great interest in film and visual media. I have spent the past months developing my creative and technical skills during this module, which I think will be applicable to a variety of future personal projects. This blog post outlines some interesting editing and post-production techniques I have learned in a module led by Muireann DeBarra of L.I.T, where I have worked creatively on audio-visual production projects. As documentation forms an important part of my creative process, this blog publication also doubles up as partial fulfillments for my Video Post-Production continuous assessment.
Who I am, and Why I chose Video Post-Production
I am a human with very large hair, who grew up moving back-and-forth between Co. Clare, Ireland and Agadir, Morocco. In the process, I feel that I have learned to adapt to two very different cultures. There’s a lovely picture of me just below with my kitchen spices. Today, I like to think of myself as a Progressive Secular Relativist, Equalitarian, Environmentalist, and Sassy-Feminista (although some do argue that I’m just a moody audio nerd). The main focus of my current undergraduate studies is research in psychoacoustics, where I am investigating auditory perception and the relationships between memory processes and the hearing system. This research is set to form a basis for my post-graduate studies, which will focus on creating and publishing a perceptual model, and applying my findings to multi-modal interface design. It is quite possible that I will be in academia for the remainder of my life. HOWEVER, I’m very much into audio and video, and have been a technology nerd since I was old enough to witness the release of Windows XP.
I chose to study Video Post-Production mainly because I felt that the skills I would learn would assist me in my personal creative projects. To my advantage, in the process the module has allowed me to develop multimedia skills that will be useful in various respects, including my future academic work. Upon completion of the module I feel confident that I would be able to create demonstrative videos in order to help me in future research dissemination at audio, interactive systems and psychoacoustics conferences. The module has also inspired me to work on video to be used alongside my experience in Max 7 (see my previous blog post). I now feel confident that I can combine my skills to create an audio-visual interactive installation for future art exhibitions. As a hobby to complement my academic work in Music Technology & Production, I enjoy producing and performing my own electronic music. Some of my greatest musical influences include Bon Iver, Imogen Heap, Four Tet, Francis and the Lights, and James Blake.
I have some experience in creating interactive audio-visual installations, both in terms of assignments in my academic programme, and also in a professional capacity. Although this mainly involves having significant technical knowledge (Max/MSP, Arduino and Ableton Live software environments), I feel that the Video Post-Production module has greatly complimented the visual aspect of my creative work, and I plan to integrate this knowledge into the creation of further automated audio-visual performances and exhibition. I have collaborated with Limerick School of Art and Design (L.S.A.D.) student Phoebe McDonogh and exhibited an audio-visual piece as part of “Sound and Visio 1” which took place in LSAD in early 2017, and more recently, I have collaborated with Dr. John Greenwood (L.I.T.) in creating a performance-based AV installation involving performers Angie Smalis and Mark Carberry. This project was exhibited as part of Limerick Fringe Festival 2017.
Although my interest in video has mainly stemmed from abstract and more creative editing styles, such as music videos and art exhibitions, I do enjoy a variety of films, documentaries and some television shows. A film maker that inspires me is Alex Garland, because of his individual and creative approach to content production. Garland’s latest work, “Annhilation” exhibits and example of this, in the form of a psychological science fiction thriller based on the novel by Jeff VanderMeer. The film follows a group of military scientists who enter a quarantined area, to investigate its properties. The film plays on the warping of time, and the mutation of landscapes and creatures caused by the environment alone. Another work that has inspired me (more relevant to the music scene, is the music video created for Sia’s “The Greatest”, which was written and directed by Sia and Daniel Askill, and choreographed by Ryan Heffington. The director of Photography was Mathieu Plainfosse. The music video is experimental and open to interpretation, beginning with complete silence and showing grey imagery of a jail-cell, a dilapidated hallway and motionless bodies. Throughout the piece of music, the visuals slowly migrate to a more colourful and life-filled theme. I feel that the concepts embedded in the musical composition are very well represented in the visual sequences.
Editing Styles and Practice
This year, I have learned to create visual content using two classic and industry-standardised editing styles: Continuity Editing, and Montage Editing. This next section outlines a description of each of these editing techniques, and presents examples of my undergraduate work applying this theory to practice. In this next section, I will demonstrate my use of Avid Media Composer which is the industry standard video editing programme amongst high-end producers. I will also outline my use of various motion and image effects within the software. Examples of my work are scattered throughout this blog-post, so feel free to scroll over the writing and simply play the videos if that is what you came here for!
Classic Continuity Editing
Although media trends change consistently, video content that is made for commercial cinema has traditionally been in the style of “Classic Continuity Editing”, which consists of sequences that create seemingly logical, continuous narratives, allowing viewers to suspend disbelief easily and comfortably. In modern film studies, continuity editing is considered the most effective means to create smooth and seamless narrative experiences for the audience, and accordingly, it is sometimes referred to as “invisible editing”.
This module allowed me to focus on a late stage of the film production process, known as the post-production stage. In post-production, continuity editing is considered the predominant editing style for narratives, feature films and television programs. The goal when editing in this style is to “smooth out” the natural discontinuity that exists across shots when sequence editing, in order to establish coherence across visual shots.
During my studies in Video Post-Production, I created two pieces that used Continuity Editing. The first, was a 90 second promotional video. In this section, I will outline my use of Avid Media Composer throughout this project. But first, here is my final video:
Following is a description of my work throughout the making of this video.
File management and organisation is extremely important when working with audio and video, and particularly when using Avid Media composer. This image shows the process of importing the footage into Avid Media Composer using the source browser, accessible from the File > Input menu list as the project window is selected. File management was a vital early stage of my learning in this module, and the organisational practice has positively contributed to the quality of my work as well as time management throughout this academic year. In the set-up used in the editing suites in L.I.T, all of the files need to be saved to a personal Z drive for each student on our lab server:
To keep an efficient and organised workflow, I created separate bins for each file type being used in my project.
The following bins were created in my project window: Sequences, Clips, Music, Titles
The footage provided with this assignment’s brief was one long clip which was shot all at once as the camera operator moved to different locations in the classroom. Once the footage was imported as one long video file, I needed to create separate cuts to save to a clip list with descriptions (detailing the action, and possibly whether it is a close up (CU) a mid shot (MS) or a wide shot (WS)), to make them easily accessible in my clip list. The following images show the process of cutting the master footage into sub clips, and saving them, with file names, to a clip bin.
I then created my separate sequence list in the sequences bin, to work on for each separate stage of the project. Progress was copied over and re-cut throughout the project.
Before beginning to edit my rough assembly, we spent a lab learning to use the different effects tools in Avid Media Composer (this was the purpose of my “FX Tool Sequence” shown in the image above). The effects tools are available in the window shown below (accessed using the key command Ctrl 3 (or Cmd 3 on a mac). The tools can then be copied over to empty slots in my sequence editor for easy access. In my project, this process was particularly useful for the keyframe tool, which I used regularly to fade separate audio files in and out in the final cut.
The motion effect was also very useful in order to make clips move in slow-motion. This image shows the motion effect settings used in the final clip of my project.
I then used the title tool to create text screens, which I used to convey information in my promotional video (explaining the idea, and displaying a relevant quote from influential figure Malala Yousafzai).
The following image shows my Rough Assembly sequence, which contains rough visual cuts only (the audio shown is from the original footage, not yet arranged here).
This rough assembly sequence eventually evolved into a second edit, called the First Pass Sequence, containing my visuals, edited more finely and working towards a coherent 90 second idea.
After this, I moved on to create a second pass sequence, containing visuals, titles, along with some effects and transitions:
And finally, I created the final cut, containing final visuals with audio, transitions, titles and final effects:
The following screenshot demonstrates the process of importing external audio. I composed an original audio track for this project, which I recorded and mixed in Logic Pro X. The wav file was then imported into Media Composer as shown below:
Following is a screenshot of the Logic session file where I recorded this music:
Further details: The following screen shot shows my general layout for efficient workflow in Avid Media Composer, as instructed in class. Here I have prioritised screen space for my source and programme monitors (top right) and my sequence timeline (bottom right). The space on the left of the screen is then kept for separate windows including the project window (usually on the top left). I then keep my sequences bin open and places on the right of the project window, so that I can switch between sequences quickly whilst editing. The space below these two windows is then used for any additional bins that are currently in use. In this screenshot I was using the clips bin, for example, to open each clip separately in the source monitor:
The following images demonstrate the exporting process in Avid Media Composer. The export window in accessible from File > Output > Export to file, and then options are selectable for the Quicktime (.mov) and audio format. Before exporting however, some preparatory steps were completed within the project, such as:
- Selecting the correct video quality in the timeline.
- Mixing down all separate video files to one single video track.
- Mixing down separate audio files to one single audio track.
A final mixdown sequence was created in the sequences bin in order to store audio and video mixdown files without altering the final cut timeline (first screenshot below). The files were then exported as Quicktime movies and submitted for grading.
Final mixdown sequence:
The second project that I created using the Continuity Editing Style involved choosing a track and creating a music video, using footage provided in class, which was a short film named “New Boy”, created by Steph Green. The original film captures the experience of a nine-year old African boy, Joseph, who had to move away from his home after losing his father. The footage clearly demonstrates his troubles settling in as a new student in Ireland. Here is my Video, followed by a description of my work within Avid Media Composer throughout this project:
The following screen shot demonstrates the process of importing the master footage provided for this project. Visuals from the short film “New Boy” (written and directed by Steph Green) was used. The full short film was imported as a single video from the shared Portfolio Footage folder, as shown in the screen shot:
Once the video was imported, the project format had to be adjusted to suit the footage, with its rendered letterbox frame. The video needed to be 25 frames per second, with an aspect ratio of 4:3. These settings are accessible under the format tab in the project window as shown in the screenshot. I then created the following bins and became familiar with the footage in order to cut the master footage into sub-clips: Clips, Music, Sequences, Titles, Master Footage.
I then cut the video into clips, giving them names relevant to the action on screen. To to this, I had the master footage in the control window, each time selecting in and out points (using the keyboard shortcuts i and o), and then holding the alt key, and clicking and dragging to copy the cut section into my newly created clips bin. Before beginning to edit the footage, I spent some time experimenting with the different tools available in the FX pallette in Avid Media Composer (to do this, I created a practice sequence).
Once I had decided on a theme for the music video, I decided to import some stock footage (creative commons). The footage included some military and war shots. I also created a new bin in my project to store this imported stock footage:
I then began to create my rough assembly sequence. The rough assembly contained mainly footage from the short film, as I experimented with some of the stock footage. I focused on the visual assembly here, and did not insert the track at this early stage of the project:
I then began to create my rough assembly sequence. The rough assembly contained mainly footage from the short film, as I experimented with some of the stock footage. I focused on the visual assembly here, and did not insert the track at this early stage of the project:
To suit the theme of the video, I decided to use my original track “L’ess”, which is mellow, with folk/ ballad style structure and lyrics crossed with some electronic processing.
I then copied the Rough Assembly to create a new sequence which would be my Rough Cut – First Pass, where I made some finer edits and added more stock footage. I worked on the first pass to almost relay a narrative, keeping the chosen music in mind, however, I was still working only on visuals, with no audio at this stage:
In the second pass, I inserted the audio track. The audio was cut by about one minute to suit the project brief. To ensure smooth transitions, I used Keyframes to fade the song in and out at the beginning and end, avoiding sharp cuts and artefacts. Some finer edits were made in the second pass in order to match some of the movement and action to the audio, allowing the song to lead the visual assembly. At this stage, I experimented with some effects, however I felt that dramatic effects and transitions did not suit the project, taking away from the narrative. On two shots, I used Timewarp, slowing down some of the video, which I felt added to the emotional effect of some of the footage.
Once the motion effects had been applied, I also used a letterbox effect on the imported footage for consistency in all the visuals (as seen across the source and programme monitors below). This screenshot shows my Final Cut, created originally from a copy of the second pass, with final edits, transitions, and titles to close the video:
This image shows some of the titles inserted at this stage of the project:
Finally, I created audio and video mixdowns, preparing my project for export as aQuicktime Movie:These rendered all cuts as one final video, with one stereo audio track, which I inserted into a new Sequence (Mixdown Sequence):
Choice of Music:
As mentioned above, I chose to use my original track “L’ess”, as I thought that it suited the theme and mood of the video. “L’ess” is, ironically, a composition stemmed from ideas on the topic of composition itself. Though the lyrics are quite cryptic in this sense, it is a piece that has evolved over time and become more relevant to its purpose as it developed. I originally composed this song as a single vocal line accompanied by one acoustic guitar track: a basic chord progression and the typical structure of a modern folk song. My main inspiration for this song was Elliott Smith, an American singer-songwriter and multi- instrumentalist. Because of the nature of the track, the cryptic lyrics easily fit to tell a story, with its mellow theme, timbres and dis-chords fitting the mood of the footage and adding to the emotional quality.
Conclusion and Learning Outcomes:
Overall, this project provided me with a lot of knowledge and experience, particularly regarding use of Avid Media Composer, the video editing environment and all of the steps required. Prior to this project, I had never been faced with the challenge of creating a music video arrangement, and the predefined story and imagery provided created a new creative challenge. I feel that this project greatly reinforced some of the topics discussed earlier this year on the different types and styles of video editing, as well as experimenting with and applying effects. I also feel that I gained some practice in building and enhancing a sequence by performing small edits and tweaks along the way in order to alleviate some changes that may otherwise seem quite dramatic during the Final Cut stage. If I were to repeat this project, I would allow more time to to expand and diversify my abilities regarding editing styles, beginning to explore the area of performance, dramatic effects and more artistic forms of video editing.
“L’ess” can be described as a mellow song, of Alternative Singer-Songwriter style,
with values influenced by various elements of different styles of music such as: a classical approach
choral harmonies transformed using electronic processing, or the drum beat, inspired by hip-hop and
electronic artists such as “Purity Ring”, with the general underlying structure of a traditional folk song.
Important Note: All Rights Reserved on the Copyright footage used in this project. Simply used for educational means in this circumstance within the confines of Limerick Institute of Technology labs. I did not create this visual content. Much of this content is strictly the intellectual property of Steph Green and other film-makers involved in the production of New Boy. The original video can be found HERE.
Audio by Rokaia Jedir, All Rights Reserved – Contactable through blog contact page (click HERE).
During the second semester of my Level 8 programme in Limerick Institute of Technology, I was required to use contrasting editing approaches such as Montage Style Editing, which is a style that is generally used when an editor aims to generate, in the mind of the viewer, new associations among the various shots that can then be of entirely different subjects, or at least of subjects, less closely related, than would be required for the continuity approach.
Advertisements and movie trailers very often use use montage-style editing, in order to convey as much information as possible within a short space of time.
Movement and action is vital when putting together a montage style sequence. It’s important to pay attention to direction, and it helps to capture the action flowing from one shot to another. Learning to select the right cuts when limited footage is provided in order to keep the theme and create a fast moving video was a challenge, and will help me with my Montage assignment.
Montage-style editing is a technique in which visuals are cut and sequenced in an fast-paced manner in order to convey that the timeline is compressed, and relay a lot of information over short periods of time. Montage editing was primarily established by Sergei Eisenstein in the 1920’s, who advocated various developing types of montage at the time (Lefebvre and Furstenau, 2016). As one of the earliest to experiment with the juxtaposition of cuts, Eisenstein eventually revealed montage to be one of the basic principles of film composition in general. As a result, “Soviet Montage Theory” was developed at this time, it became widely understand and accepted that creating cinema was heavily reliant on editing. The word “montage”, accordingly, originates from the French for “editing”. Amongst modern filmmakers, the principles of Montage-style editing is often implemented for promotional videos for events, product advertisement, and film trailers. It can also be seen in feature film sections, where a lot of information may need to be conveyed hastily, for example, in order to introduce a new character in an opening scene.
In preparation for this project, labs were spent creating various 30 second montage sequences in Avid Media Composer using various feature-film clips. The aim of these tasks were to familiarise ourselves with fast moving video, continuous action and referring to a common theme throughout the video. In these labs, themes were pre-determined in the film clips provided. Contrastingly, our promotional video assignment will be edited to an original theme detailed by the Creative Directors, and discussed and detailed in a briefs for the CBVP students. Concept Development and Research: Two modern montage-style promotional videos were studied and discussed in detail as a class: a promotional video for “The Limerick Spring, Festival of Polotics and Ideas”, and “Limerick 2020 – Multiplicity”, a video representing Limerick as a culture-filled city, and the Limerick 2020 project as a whole. Both of these examples use fast-paced editing styles, with coherent and consistent action, movement, colouring and titles. These were useful and relevant examples, and allowed us to consider implementing similar techniques and cuts in our own montages.
During my studies in Video Post-Production, I created a promotional video using the Montage-Style Editing approach. In this next section, I will outline my use of Avid Media Composer throughout this project. Here is my final video:
Following is a description of my work throughout the making of this video.
This was creative audio-visual production project in order to deliver a promotional montage-style video for LIT Music Festival 2018, and was submitted in partial fulfillments for my video post-production portfolio (semester 2) assessment at Limerick Institute of Technology. This project is based on my collaboration with peers in Music Production, and with Creative Broadcast & Film Production (CBFP: Year 2) students. Throughout this project, Creative Broadcast students have acted as a production team, shooting and sourcing visual content, while my classmate (Anthony Byrne) and I worked together as Creative Directors, and took on editing and post-production tasks. Montage-style editing was studied and implemented in the production of this video, and post-production work was completed using Avid Media Composer.
Initial milestones included decision making in relation to the main video theme, and building content ideas around that theme. We decided to base center video around unity and inclusivity within the music scene in Limerick City and across generations of musicians. An early creative brief was drafted to build around this concept, in preparation to present our footage requirements to the CBFP students. The brief included included concept and structure notes, and a detailed shot list with descriptions, locations and the props required. Upon meeting with the production team, and after careful consideration with regards feasibility, some changes were made to creative brief across three labs. To our advantage, the production team were knowledgeable and experiecned in film production and video editing, and were able to provide us with some strong advice relating to our ideas of the end result. After our first meeting, some shots were removed from the list, and replaced with more effective content. For example, in our earliest draft, Anthony and I had requested many still shots at various locations in Limerick, in order to represent a journey, and use visuals to emphasise the Limerick-related concepts. Upon our first meeting with the production team, we were advised that at a later point, still shots may not be ideal for montage-style editing due to the lack of motion. They advised us that lively, fast moving, and colourful shots should be used and that still shots can turn out to resemble photographs rather than video, which would negatively affect our end product. A total of three drafts of the creative brief were made in this assignment.
Through this video, I wished to relate to the topic of unity and inclusivity within the music scene in Limerick City and across generations of musicians. I wanted to create a fast-paced, time-lapse inspired walkthrough of the Limerick music scene. The dominant features of Limerick City will be represented, with main colour scheme working around red-brick – hot colours which also match our Music Festival branding. Colourful action-filled shots and long walking shots will be required to be sped-up in post-production, as well as many still shots of landmarks, talent and traffic in the city.
Once the above creative brief had been finalised. We liaised with the production team consistently across the two following weeks, and on some occasions we also worked together to gather footage (branding reveal and the Millennium performance shots). While they were busy collecting the rest of the footage, we spent our lab time learning about montage editing, creating practice sequences, and experimenting with the 3D Warp tool and other effects in available in Avid Media Composer. Some time was spent preparing for these labs specifically, examining and experimenting with the footage as outlined above.
Workflow and Project Management
Once all of the footage had been gathered from CBFP students, I examined and experimented with it using Apple iMovie prior to creating a project on the Avid Z Drive, in order to ensure that the important shots outlined in our creative brief had been received, and that all of the necessary footage to realise our concept had been provided. A trial montage was created using iMovie in order to familiarise myself with the footage, and facilitate a more efficient workflow in the avid labs:
Once this was complete, the footage was copied to the Z drive in the avid lab, and proceeded to create a new project in Avid Media Composer. The project was formatted so that the resolution was 1920*1080 pixels, at 25 frames per second, with an aspect ratio of 16:9. Once these preferences were set, I began to import the footage using the source browser, naming, and organising the clips appropriately. Primarily, some time was spent solving technical issues encountered whilst importing the footage. Here, I learned about the different methods that can be used to import footage and about the different formats, frame rates and resolution settings available and how they might affect import. Project bins and various clip bins were created at this early stage. In previous montage-practice labs, master footage was cut into sub-clips upon importing it into media composer. In this case, however, the majority of shots provided were only seconds long, so rather than cutting a lot of subclips, I simply cut out blurred and shaky sections, and renamed all of the clips clips according to the action in each shot. I then organised the clips in separate bins depending on action or where they were shot (Performance, Outdoors, Props):
Once the project was set up and organised, The Rough Cut: First Pass sequence was created, and I began to apply the techniques learned in the montage practice labs. As I became familiar with the footage through making a first pass sequence, I made some further creative decisions with an end vision in mind for my sequence. I decided here that I would use large titles and transitions overlaying the visuals in order to convey a message, in a similar style to that of the “Limerick Spring” promotional video mentioned earlier. To begin the first pass sequence, the branding reveal, which was intended to be spliced into sections of the video, was first placed on a video track and a motion effect was added in order to time-lapse it until it was 30 seconds long. As other clips were added to new video tracks, the branding reveal shot could then be used as a guide for the full length of the montage.
The following images demonstrate the creation of a rough-cut: first pass sequence:
The second pass sequence was heavily reliant on titles, transitions and effects, however, some of these were disregarded in the final cut. Using the music festival branding provided, a three second opening scene was created to introduce the montage. The Blur Effect (effect pallette > images > blur effect) was added to the branding originally as the titles were sequentially superimposed, and finally, the following image was revealed:
Much more footage was added in the second pass, including prop shots taken in music shops, and some performance shots from the Millennium Theatre (taken during one of our House Band rehearsals). In the second pass, I added titles to display the following message throughout the video, referring to our main theme: “March 2018 marks the return of LIT Music Festival to unite the Limerick music scene.” Although the opening animation in this second pass was later disregarded, it allowed me to practice working with titles over a background shot, which was extremely useful for the final cut. As this project progressed, titles became a more prominent element, and I needed to put more thought into the message to be conveyed and fluidity of the text on screen. As I was working in Media Composer, I created a word document to refer back to as I created the titles and transitions. Upon feedback on my second pass sequence in class, I used the document to help me make decisions on the message, by arranging the different phrases and active verbs that could be used over the visuals. In the final cut, I decided to go with the following phrase: Perform, learn, move, to unite Limerick in music”. The words were matched carefully to the visuals, and subtle colour changes and effects were added to each title.
The 3D Warp tool was also used to animate and emphasise the word “Limerick”, referring again to our main theme:
Once all of the shots, titles and effects were placed and edited appropriately, a 30 second snippet of audio was created using Ableton Live, where I recorded and manipulated various vocal samples and backed it with percussive sounds in a drum sequencer. The following image demostrates my work on various scenes in Ableton Live. I used a lot of bright and “major” sounds to accompany this fast-moving visual sequence:
Finally, the following image shows my final cut, including audio. The imagery was altered slightly in order to cut effectively to the music:
In recent years, video advertising has become increasingly popular in various respects. Throughout this project, I have learned that video advertising has the ability to create a relatable and stimulating environment for consumers by meeting their expectations for content. It allows brands to quickly inform and visually entertain, which generates a powerful platform for conversion when accurately targeted across user behavior patterns. This project enabled me to learn many useful skills that are relevant to industry-related work. I have learned a lot about montage-style editing, and why it may be used in video marketing and event promotion. I feel that my editing practice throughout the past weeks has allowed me to develop my skills, both with event promotion and with video editing in Avid Media Composer. Although it was a major challenge to begin with, I feel that I am now confident in selecting important snippets from large sets of footage, and that I can manipulate 30 seconds of visual content into an effective promotional montage. Additionaly, the editing practice throughout this assignment has enabled to work efficiently in Avid Media Composer, giving me more time and improving my overall quality of work. I feel that the smaller deadlines throughout this project (including lab work), helped me with time management throughout this assignment, which is often a challenge when working outside of class. In conclusion, I feel that I have fulfilled the project brief requirements and created a montage-style video that is useable to promote LIT Music Festival on social media platforms.
If I were to repeat this assignment, I would spend more time on file and project management in Avid Media Composer, and import all footage into a new project in Media Composer prior to the labs. I felt that this was a very time consuming task during the lab, and that solving technical issues was a major challege in beginning this assignment. I now understand that it is important to provide enough storage space to allow Media Composer to store all of the footage required. Another major learning outcome is that movement and action is vital when putting together a montage style sequence. It is important to pay attention to direction, and colouring and it helps to capture the action flowing from one shot to another.
A couple of further examples of my work in video labs: